PULSES

Ethiopian Soybeans

Soybean production in Ethiopia has been significantly growing over the last decade. According to CSA’s crop production and livestock utilization date (2009 EC), the total soy beans production for the year 2009 is 812,347 quintals. 
From 2000 to 2009, production volume has increased by an annual average of 37% while productivity (yield per hectare) over the same period increased by 8%. Regionally, Amhara (39%), Benishangul Gumuz (36%) and Oromia (24%) are the largest producers while SNNPR (0.33%) is the only other producing region. Export data from ERCA and National Bank of Ethiopia indicate that 34,264 Metric ton of Soy beans, with value of 15.7 million USD were exported in 2016, The main destinations for the Ethiopian Soy bean export in the past ten years were Australia, Bahrain, Djibouti, India, Indonesia, Italy, Kuwait, Netherlands, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sudan, USA and Vietnam, with Sudan and Indonesia along importing 42% of soybeans from Ethiopia.
Globally, a total volume of 667.8 million Metric Tons (MT) of soybean was produced in the fiscal year 2016/17. Over the last eight years, average production volume of soybean world-wide reached 557.5 million MT per annum. During this period, the major five producing countries account for 47% of the global soybean output: USA (17%), Brazil (15%), Argentina (9%), China (2%), and India (2%). Statistical data of 2018 production volumes show that USA (34%), Brazil (30%) and Argentina (18%) account for 82% of the overall global production with combined volume of 248 million Metric tons. The overall trend from 2000 to 2009 shows that the volume of soybeans produce in Ethiopia has increased on average of 37% within this time period and the highest volume (812,418 quintals) was registered in 2008 E.C. The average regional distribution of overall soy bean production from 2000 to 2009, Oromia, Benishangul and Amhara are the largest producers, with the three regions making up 99.6% of the overall national production in 2009. The remaining 0.33percent production came from SNNPR.

Growing Conditions 
In general, the cultivation of soybean is successful in climates with hot summers, with temperatures between 20°C to 30°C being optimum. Temperatures below 20°C and over 40°C are found to retard growth significantly. It can grow in a wide range of soils, with optimum growth in moist alluvial soils with a good organic content. Modern soybean varieties generally reach a height of around 1 m (3 ft), and take 80-120 days from sowing to harvesting. 

Contract Classification and Grades 

Class

Origin

Symbol

Grade

Delivery Location 

Soya Bean Shewa

West Shewa, North Shewa and all areas except those listed under Assosa, Bure, Nekemte & Gonder 

SBSH

1,2,3,4,LG

Addis Ababa (AA) 

Soya Bean Assosa

Assoa Pawe, Metekel, Dangur and surrounding

SBAS

1,2,3,4,LG

Assosa (ASS) & Pawe(PA)

Soya Beans Gojjam 

West Gojam, East Gojam, Awi, Jawi and surrounding  areas

SBGJ

1,2,3,4,LG

Bure (BU) 

Soya Beans Wollega

East Wellega, West Wollega, Horroguduru Wellega, Kelem Wellega, Illibabure Zone and surrounding areas

SBWO

1,2,3,4, LG

Nekemte (NE) 

Soya Beans Gonder

North Gonder, South Gonder, West Gonder and surrounding areas 

SBGO

1,2,3,4,LG

Gonder(GO)  

 

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Ethiopian White Pea Beans

Domestic Scenario: Haricot bean is one of the most important grain legumes grown in the low lands of Ethiopia, particularly in the Rift Valley. In these areas, white pea beans are grown for export purposes as well as for domestic consumption. Haricot bean is also a principal food crop particularly in the southern and eastern parts of Ethiopia.

Product Varieties: The varieties of haricot beans in use in the country include white, mixed, red, and other color types. The white haricot bean varieties are: Mexican 142, Awash 1 and Awash Melka. The other types of haricot bean varieties include: Key, Wolayta, Roba 1, Atendaba Brown, Speckled, Ayenew, Gofta, Zebra, Gobe Rash, Beshbesh, Melke, Tabor, Batagonia, Angeber, and TV.
 
Agro-Ecological Conditions: The altitude suitable for the growth of haricot bean ranges between 600 and 2,200m. The planting period for the haricot bean needs to be properly set such that harvest period falls during the dry season or before the onset of the rainy periods with a suitable rainfall between 450-700mm. The duration from planting to harvesting, for areas with altitude of 1,000-1,700m, is 85-95 days, while for areas with altitudes of 1,500-2,200m the duration becomes 110 days. Concerning the white pea bean, it is sown from the end of June to mid-July, usually not intercropped, and harvested after three months in October.
 
Domestic Production:  In year 2005/06, Ethiopia’s volume of main season haricot bean production was .24 million tons, accounting for 1.8% of major crops production. The lion’s share of haricot bean production in the country (during the period 2004-06) originated mainly from three regions: Oromia (65%), SNNPR (22%) and Amhara (11%). The main season yield of Haricot Bean, for the period 1998/99-2005/06, ranged from a low of 0.62 tons per hectare to a high of 0.94 tons per hectare. During this period, Haricot Bean yield levels averaged 0.82 tons per hectare
 
Commercialization: Throughout different regions, namely SNNPR, Eastern Hararghe and Western Ethiopia, white pea bean is consumed usually mixed with other cereals. In eastern and western Ethiopia, it is widely intercropped with maize and sorghum to supplement farmers with additional income. They are also consumed boiled, fried, milled, or grounded in the form of soups. Crop utilization survey data for haricot bean indicated that of the total national production of haricot bean, 69.87% was utilized for household consumption, 18.75% for sale; while the balance was used for seed; wage in kind, animal feed and other uses.
 
 In general, earlier research estimates that, excluding the volume of grain set aside for consumption, seed and feed, 28 percent of total grain production (including oilseeds and pulses) is marketed, of which 29.8 percent is accounted by pulse crops in general. In general, the commercial grain supplies mainly come from the production of small farmers, private commercial farmers, state farmers, imports and food aid. The market participants in Haricot bean trade include producers (small holders and commercial farms), wholesalers, retailers, part-time farmer- traders, brokers, agents, assemblers, processors, cooperatives, EGTE, and consumers.
 
 Global Scenario: White pea bean has become an important export item in the country’s pulse exports. In 2005/06 for instance, Ethiopia exported about 62, 262 tons of haricot beans /mainly white pea beans/ valued at about 22 million USD or about 193.7 million ETB, with a unit value of export of 353 USD/mt. The value of export was destined mainly to various countries such as: Sudan, Yemen, South Africa, UAE, USA, UK, Italy, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. The world production of dry beans was 18.3 million tons in 2004. World export of dry beans in 2004 totaled 1.3 billion USD and the volume of export was 3 million. Concerning imports, in 2004, the volume of world import of dry beans was 2.4 million tons, valued at 1.2 billion USD.

TOTAL DEFECTIVE 3.5%/4.0%
BROKEN/ SHRIVELED AND DAMAGE 0.8%/1.0%
FOREIGN MATTER 0.8%/1.0%
MOISTURE 13.0%/13.0%
BEAN COUNT 660-700 count/100gram
OUT OF THIS STONE 0.2%/0.4%
Contrasting Classes 0.5%/1.0%

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Ethiopian Pinto Beans

Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) one of the major pulses that serve as a rotational crop in cereal based cropping systems in the lowland areas. According to 2019 International Trade Center Data, the largest producers of Pinto beans globally are India, Myanmar and Brazil with 6.3, 5.4 and 3.0 million metric tons. These three countries account for 63.5 percent of the global Pinto beans production. 

Pinto beans production in Ethiopia shows a significant growth during the past two years According to the southern Nations Nationalities and people’s Bureau(2011 EC),the total pinto beans production for the year 2011 is 435,600 quintals. From 2010-2011, production volume increased by an annual average of 25%.currently the only producer of this commodity is SNNPR region.  

Export data from ERCA and National Bank of Ethiopia indicate that 2981 Metric ton of Pinto beans, with value of Birr 5.8 million were exported in 2010E.C, while in 2011EC, 7,801 metric ton was exported and 13.5 million Birr was earned. In the past two years, the main export destinations for Ethiopia’s Pinto beans have been Pakistan, India, Kenya, Tanzania, Germany, Russian and Czech Republic.

Harvesting and Marketing Seasons

September, October, November and December are the harvesting and marketing seasons for Pinto beans.

Ethiopia’s Pinto beans Export, Volume and Value

  • 2,981 metric tons, Average annual export volumes from 2010E.C.
  • 7,801 metric tons, worth more than 13.5 million Birr  exported in 2011E.C .
  • Ethiopia’s Pinto beans exports have mainly been destined to India, Pakistan, Kenya and Tanzania also imported the product from Ethiopia.
TOTAL DEFECTIVE 0.36%
SPLIT Nil
BROKEN/ SHRIVELED AND DAMAGE 0.36%
UNDERSIZE 1.39%
COLOR 1.90%
FOREIGN MATTER Nil
MOISTURE 13% max
FREE FROM WEEVIL , INSECTS, INFESTATION
BEAN COUNT 280 – 320 count / 100 gram

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Ethiopian Green Mung Beans

Domestic Scenario: Mung bean is known locally as “Masho”. It is a recent introduction in the Ethiopian pulse production and grown in few areas of the country. The volume of production is also very small and it is concentrated mainly in North Shewa and South Wollo zones of Amhara region, Gambella region and in some woredas of Beneshalgul Gumuz region.

Product Varieties: Mung beans are small, ovoid (and sometimes cylindrical) in shape with a bright green skin. They have green skin hence they are also called green beans. The Ethiopia Mung bean contract classifies the bean in to two varieties by production area. These are: Green Mung Bean Shoa and Green Mung Bean Asossa type.
 
 Agro-Ecological Conditions: Mung bean is a warm season annual legume which is a drought resistant crop with an optimum temperature range of 27- 30°C for good production. It is very early maturing quick crop, requiring 75–90 days to mature. Best adaptation areas for Mung bean are at 1,000-1,650 meters above sea elevation level; with annual rainfall of 600-750mm, its production in Ethiopia is most suited with clay loam fluvsol, clay eutric fluvisol, and pellic vertisol types of soil. It is usually sown at “Belge” lean season between Februarys to April and “Mehere” between Julys to August when the rain starts to end. Domestic Production: Mung bean productivity in Ethiopia is estimated to be on average from 12 up to 15 Qt. /ha with a volume of production is increasing year to year. Amhara and Beneshangul Gumuz regions are the two potential production areas of green Mung bean.

 Global Scenario: In 2015/2016, Ethiopia exported a total of 30,694 MT of green Mung bean with a value of 35.8 million USD. Compared to export performance of to 2014/2015, the export volume and value grew up by 21% and 23%, respectively. The major export destinations for Ethiopian green Mung bean are: Indonesia, India, Belgium, UAE, and Singapore. Other major global players in Mung bean import comprises: USA, Netherlands, UK, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and Malaysia.

 

SPLIT 98% MIN
BROKEN/ SHRIVELED AND DAMAGE 1.5 %
FOREIGN MATTER 0.5 %
MOISTURE 13% MAX
FREE FROM WEEVIL , INSECTS, INFESTATION
SIZE 2.8-3.0MM

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Ethiopia Brown Chickpeas

Chickpea, locally known as Shimbra, is one of the major pulse crops in Ethiopia. According to CSA data (June 2015/16), the total production of Chickpea in 2009 E.C was 444,146 tons. Of this total production volume, approximately 25% is brought into the market as a surplus volume. 

The two major regions, Amhara and Oromia, make up more than 90% of the total supply of chickpeas followed by Tigray and SNNP. Though the local market classifies chickpeas into different categories using color, shape and origin of chickpea, the most common type of chickpea known by origin at Messalema market include: Gondar, Gojjam, Ade’a, Wolonkomy, and Becho. In general, chickpea production by type consists of 70% Desi and the rest 30% is Kabuli type chickpea. 

From the total Chickpea production in 2007 E.C, the marketable surplus volume of Kabuli was 34,346 tons and that of Desi was 80,141 tons. About 80% of the total surplus volume is destined for export market. Data sources from ERCA indicate that a total of 48,739 tons of chickpea valued at Birr 454.5 million was exported into different countries in 2014. During same period, the weighted average export price of chickpea was Birr 9,324 per ton compared to local market price of Birr 1,180 per ton. The main destinations for the Ethiopian chickpea in fiscal year 2007 E.C were India, Pakistan and UAE with market share of 35%, 34%, and 24% respectively. 

Chickpea Production Volume by Type: Ethiopian Chickpea production consists of 70% of Desi and the rest 30% is a Kabuli Chickpea type. From the total Chickpea production in 2009E.C, the marketable surplus of Kabuli was 34,346 tons and that of Desi was 80,141 tons. 

GRADE 2/3
TOTAL DEFECTIVE 0.8%/1.5%
SPLIT 1.0%/1.6%
BROKEN/ SHRIVELED AND DAMAGE 0.8%/1.5%
FREE FROM WEEVIL , INSECTS, INFESTATION
Shriveled 4.0% /8.0%
Cracked Seed Coat 5.0%/7.0%

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Ethiopian Red Kidney Beans

Domestic Scenario: Haricot bean is one of the most important grain legumes grown in the low lands of Ethiopia, particularly in the Rift Valley. In these areas, white pea beans are grown for export purposes as well as for domestic consumption. Haricot bean is also a principal food crop particularly in the southern and eastern parts of Ethiopia.


Product Varieties: The varieties of haricot beans in use in the country include white, mixed, red, and other color types. The white haricot bean varieties are: Mexican 142, Awash 1 and Awash Melka. The other types of haricot bean varieties include: Key, Wolayta, Roba 1, Atendaba Brown, Speckled, Ayenew, Gofta, Zebra, Gobe Rash, Beshbesh, Melke, Tabor, Batagonia, Angeber, and TV.


Agro-Ecological Conditions: The altitude suitable for the growth of haricot bean ranges between 600 and 2,200m. The planting period for the haricot bean needs to be properly set such that harvest period falls during the dry season or before the onset of the rainy periods with a suitable rainfall between 450-700mm. The duration from planting to harvesting, for areas with altitude of 1,000-1,700m, is 85-95 days, while for areas with altitudes of 1,500-2,200m the duration becomes 110 days. Concerning the white pea bean, it is sown from the end of June to mid-July, usually not intercropped, and harvested after three months in October.
 
 Global Scenario: White pea bean has become an important export item in the country’s pulse exports. In 2005/06 for instance, Ethiopia exported about 62, 262 tons of haricot beans /mainly white pea beans/ valued at about 22 million USD or about 193.7 million ETB, with a unit value of export of 353 USD/mt. The value of export was destined mainly to various countries such as: Sudan, Yemen, South Africa, UAE, USA, UK, Italy, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. The world production of dry beans was 18.3 million tons in 2004. World export of dry beans in 2004 totaled 1.3 billion USD and the volume of export was 3 million. Concerning imports, in 2004, the volume of world import of dry beans was 2.4 million tons, valued at 1.2 billion USD.
 

TOTAL DEFECTIVE 1.47%
SPLIT 0.09%
BROKEN/ SHRIVELED AND DAMAGE 0.26 %
UNDERSIZE 0.96%
FOREIGN MATTER NIL
MOISTURE 11%
FREE FROM WEEVIL , INSECTS, INFESTATION
BEAN COUNT 470-477 BEANS/ 100 GRAM

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